Witchcraft and the history thereof echoes the needs of humanity, and for humans and most other species the most primal instinct we have is that of survival. Thus, it should be of no surprise that some of the oldest and most enduring magic is apotropaic magic. That is, magic intended to ward off or deflect evil, especially someone else’s evil magic. Modern circles may also call this abjuration magic.
To this day, one of the most common requests I get is to create a witch bottle, either to protect a home from malicious magic, or to break a curse. The witch bottle became widespread in Tudor England, and especially prevalent in the Elizabethan era. The original witch bottles of this time are usually ceramic, and usually called Bellarmine, after an Inquisitor named Robert Bellarmire, who is now a saint in the Catholic church, some even bore his likeness.
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